In his column today, Matthew Herper brings up an important issue in personalized medicine. Namely, pharmaceutical companies need to proceed with caution as they pursue research, development, and sales of drugs tailored to “niche populations,” or those for whom the drug will work only if they have the unique genetic variation of the disease being treated. Certainly, as we develop drugs in an era where we know more about how people will respond based on their genetic make-up, we will have to simultaneously create new research and financial paradigms that can sustain this important and necessary work.
However, that’s not the end – or even the beginning – of the story.
Where Herper loses me is his narrow definition of personalized medicine. What he’s talking about in this piece is pharmacogenetics (or pharmacogenomics) , which is one facet of personalized medicine. But personalized medicine is a much broader field of health care. In fact, given the relatively few targeted therapies that have actually made it to market, I would argue that pharmacogenetics is really a small piece of the personalized medicine pie.
We and others have defined personalized medicine as a predictive, preventive, participatory, and prospective approach to care that is individualized to patients based not only on their unique molecular information, but also on their unique clinical, social, behavioral, and environmental data. Planning for health is a critical component of personalized care. While many patients may have similar goals – continued health and wellness, weight loss, reduced blood pressure, improved insulin sensitivity – how they reach those goals is customized based on their unique profile identified through a comprehensive health risk assessment. Furthermore, a key component to the success of personalized medicine is engaging patients in the process – whether that means getting them on board with taking that tailored prescription medication, or getting in the recommended 2.5 hours of physical activity a week. Thus, tracking markers of health and disease, as well as compliance with recommended therapies over time, helps to keep both patient and provider mutually informed about how a patient is doing – and whether preventive action might be necessary to avert an event. Finally, when we get to the point in personalized medicine where we’re using tailored pharmaceuticals, the patient likely has already developed disease – at least as far as where pharmacogenetics currently stands. Personalized medicine, if practiced as we’re describing, is aimed first at preventing disease, and then mitigating the negative consequences of disease after it has developed. This is the true promise of personalized medicine – disease prevention that will reduce the skyrocketing rates of chronic diseases that cost the U.S. $2 trillion annually.
I agree with Herper – something “big and dangerous” did happen in personalized medicine today: An exciting drug discovery prompted debate over the promise of personalized medicine without considering personalized care beyond pharmacogenetics. By equating the two, we undermine the true possibilities of a personalized approach to care that goes well beyond what drugs to prescribe. And if we don’t start implementing the features of personalized medicine that are readily accessible to us today at relatively minimal cost, then that truly will be a giant mess.